An example of an instrumental bias is an incorrectly calibrated pH meter that shows pH values 0.5 units lower than the true value. An example of a method error would be partial loss of a volatile analyte during the ashing step in graphite furnace atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy. An example of human bias is a student who records titration endpoints beyond the true endpoint due to color blindness.
Systematic errors can be identified and corrected by analyzing standards that closely match the real sample.
/chem-ed/data/error.htm, updated 10/14/96
Copyright © 1996 by Brian M. Tissue, all rights reserved.
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